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Roy is almost always hungry. They had met before. They had met long before. She saw it recently. Find and list the ten adverbs that mod- ify other adverbs in the following sentences.
After each adverb, give the adverb modified. Changes in our economy have occurred somewhat rapidly 2. Cancer research has advanced rather dramatically in the last few years. Pam reached the meeting too late to hear the com- plete discussion. If you handle this material very carefully, you will be in no danger. To our surprise, Father took the news quite calmly. She always completely rewrites the first draft of her novels.
We all finally agreed that Earl Campbell had done extremely well. Usually it seems that each month goes more rapidly than the month before. Arguments on both sides were most cleverly pre- sented. Although they are extremely young, these stu- dents measure up surprisingly well.
Forms of Adverbs You have probably noticed that many adverbs end in -ly. You should remember, however, that many ad- jectives also end in -ly: the daily newspaper, an early train, an only child, her untimely death, a friendly person. Moreover, words like now, then, far, wide, fast, high, already, somewhat, not, and right, which are often used as adverbs, do not end in -ly. In order to identify a word as an adverb, do not depend entirely upon the ending.
Instead, ask yourself: Does this word modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb? Does it tell when, where, how, or to what extent? Number your paper , and list after the proper number the adverbs in each sentence. After each adverb, write the word or expression it modifies. Be able to tell whether the word or expres- sion modified is a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
People who travel abroad usually visit the Tower of London. The Tower, which was first built by William the Conqueror, is one of the most famous landmarks in London.
The Tower formerly served as a fortress, and troops are still stationed in it today. A special ceremony called "The Ceremony of the Keys" is performed nightly. The three gates of the Tower are securely locked by the Chief Warder, and an escort is especially assigned for the ceremony. The Chief Warder and the escort promptly report to the front of the Tower. The sentry immediately challenges them: "Halt!
Who comes there? The Chief Warder quickly responds, "The Keys. The sentry then asks, "Whose keys? And all the guards respond together, "Amen. Finally the Chief Warder carries the keys to the Queen's House, and they remain there for the night. The Ceremony of the Keys is not the only pag- eantry associated with the Tower. Royal salutes are often fired from the Tower in recognition of particularly important occasions. At the coronation of a king or queen, a sixty-two- gun salute is traditionally fired.
A royal birth is appropriately proclaimed by a forty-one-gun salute. The oldest residents of the Tower of London are ravens; they have probably always been at the Tower. Legend claims that the Tower will fall if the ravens ever leave. So that ravens are always there in the Tower, the guards clip their wings.
The ravens are not unhappy; their needs are well supplied by the weekly rations that they receive from the state. She glanced down the hall. From the context. The milk tastes sour. You must down the spoonful of medi- cine. The following summary will help you identify parts of speech in context: What you are doing is studying the context of the word—how the word is used in the sentence. The quarterback made a first down. What part of speech a word is depends upon how the word is used.
The same word may be used as different parts of speech. She made a small down payment. She glanced down. We won! It worked. You must see how the word is used in the sentence. A red light flashed. A light rain fell. Cars whizzed by. Place beside the proper number the part of speech of the italicized word. I don't mind. We soon left. Study the use of each italicized word in the following sen- tences. Use the following abbreviations: Be able to justify your answer by giving the use of the word in the sentence.
Light the oven now. That looks beautiful. One part is missing. Underline the word. We must soon part. Lock the top drawer. Because the owl can see in the 6 dark 7 and can 8 answer questions with a few pat phrases. Look up. We drove on. We saw snow there. Pam went by air. When it bumps 14 into a tree.
I shooed the hen away. That cat is smart. After each number. We climbed to the Be able to explain its use in the sentence. Sail up the river. Number Get out of And when it staggers down the 16 middle of the highway. I slept. Write twenty short sentences using each of the following words as two different parts of speech. He did it for you. Can you top that?
They 11 follow in the owl's footsteps and 12 mimic its 13 every action. They do. It may snow tonight. They followed their leader without question.
Naturally the owl is 27 no help to them when they are in the path of a fast-moving truck. Because the owl fails to see a truck that 21 is approaching. The truck proves 28 beyond question that the owl 29 is 30 not a god. The 33 foolish ani- mals are all killed by the truck. You Will learn how a given part of speech functions as part of a sentence — how a noun functions as a subject or a complement. Chapter 2 The Parts of a Sentence Subject.
In written Eng- lish. This understanding of sentence structure will help you to speak and to write more effectively. You might say some- thing like the following: Nice weather for this time of year. Your meaning here is perfectly clear. You will then be able to develop or fortify your "sentence sense. Complement As you study this chapter and do the exer- cises in it.
In your everyday conversations. As the basic unit of written expression. A sentence is a group of words expressing a com- plete thought. Florence was elected president of our club. Decide whether each group of words is a sentence or only a.
FRAGMENTS chicken and rice from August through October the president of our club doing well in school These groups of words can become sentences only when other words are added to make the thoughts complete: The rainy season lasts from August through October. Most of us are doing well in school. A sentence consists of two parts: As you turn the fragments into sentences. If the word group is a sentence. Ray turned pale The subject of the sentence is the part about which something is being said.
In the following examples. If the word group is a frag- ment. The predicate is the part which says something about the subject. After the corresponding number on your paper. In the previous examples. Do your parents mind your getting home late? The rhinoceros. Doesn't the rhinoceros charge at the slightest disturbance?
Other mammals have horns in more appropriate locations. The person in the first row I is my sister. The members of the club I arrived. The legs of a rhinoceros are rather stout and short and end in broad feet. Its eyesight is very poor. The words to the right of the vertical line make up the complete predicate.
In the desk were the red pencils. Some large animals can move very quickly. Animals such as the water buffalo and the elephant are more dangerous. Jutting from its upper lip is a large.
On rainy mornings. Its big. Notice the complete subjects. Swarms of bloodsucking parasites crawl all over its back.
Add complete predicates to the follow- ing complete subjects to make complete sentences. Adjectives and preposi- tional phrases that modify the simple subject are in- cluded in the complete subject.
NOTE Compound nouns. To distinguish the simple subject from the complete subject. The simple subject is the main word or group of words in the complete subject. From the examples above. This word names the person. Next in line was 9. Had — eaten a green persimmon?
On a separate sheet of paper. The simple predicate. Lying beside the wrecked car was On the other side of the fence stood The Simple Predicate 2d. The other words in the complete predicate may affect the meaning of the verb in various ways. The essential word or words in the complete predi- cate is always the simple predicate. In the latter. Label one of them Complete predicate and the other Verb. In the novel appear the people and scenes of Wolfe's youth.
Complete predicate was sitting on the sofa Verb was sitting Hereafter throughout this book. When you are asked to pick out the simple predi- cate in a sentence. From the following sentences. North Carolina. Study the following examples. Look Homeward. In doing so. Make two columns on your paper. If you find a verb phrase. Many writers' first novels are autobiographical. Wolfe was later revered by the town's citizens. In the library can be found all the newspaper clippings about Wolfe's life and works.
At first an outcast in Asheville. His mother. The boyhood home of Wolfe is still standing in Asheville. A trip to the Asheville library supplies one with many facts about Wolfe.
Number your paper and write each complete thought after the proper number. Remembering that a sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The house and its furnishings are carefully de- scribed by Wolfe in Look Homeward. Now that you have learned about subjects and predi- cates. The whole town mourned the early death of its most famous son. Nellie Bly's investigative reporting showed cour- age and cleverness.
After numbering What has? Road is the subject. After you have found the verb. American women became leaders in their professions. In Melville Bissell invented the carpet sweeper. In she traveled alone around the world. Under her management as corporation president. After the death of her husband in Her travels were reported in the New York World.
Who can wade? The answer is we. What roared? The train roared. Before the equal rights movement. The Salvation Army has always treated men and women equally. Find the subject of each of the follow- ing sentences by first finding the verb and then by asking "Who?
Have you heard of Nellie Bly. Anne Bissell managed his company for forty years. Be sure to include all parts of a verb phrase. The fact is that a word in a prepositional phrase is never the subject.
Cross out each of the prepositional phrases. Girls is in the phrase of the girls. Since the prepositional phrase contains a noun or a pronoun. When you ask "Who helped?
For a full discussion of prepositional phrases. You will remember that a prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun: The sub- ject of is has to be island. My aunt on my father's side willed it to us last year.
The subject of a verb is never in a prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrases can be especially misleading when the subject follows the verb. Neither middle nor lake can be the subject because each word is part of a prepositional phrase. That house near the railroad tracks is my home.
Underline each verb twice and its subject once. Sometimes a picture on the living-room wall crashes to the floor. The oven door of the gas range habitually snaps open. Either way. The Subject in an Unusual Position Sentences that ask questions and sentences that be- gin with there or here have a word order which places the subject in an unusual position.
The vibrations of the heavy freight trains cause the most damage. Every hour or so trains of all shapes and sizes roar through our backyard. Each of the advertisers on the screen seems to speak without saying a thing. Does the novel have a happy ending? In questions that begin with a helping verb. Sentences That Ask Questions Questions often begin with a verb or with a verb helper.
Yesterday at breakfast. Everything about the house except its location is very satisfactory. You can also find the subject by turning the question into a state- ment. The thunderous clanking of the trains completely absorbs the sound of our television. They also frequently begin with words such as what. To find the subject in such a sentence.
There are many questions on American history in my book. The verb and its subject are labeled for you in the sentences below. There is someone in the phone booth. There can be used to get a sentence started when the real sub- ject comes after the verb. Oranges are in the refrigerator. Someone is in the phone booth. Write subjects first. There are oranges in the refrigerator. A log cabin is in the clearing.
Numbering your paper When were the famous Salem witch trials? Under whose flag did Columbus sail? Listen carefully to these instructions. What kinds of schools did the colonists' children attend? Why did such a tragedy occur?
Can you name the three oldest colleges in America? How did the Americans proclaim their independ- ence? Where is Plymouth Rock? What does "squatter's rights" mean? Why were the colonists dissatisfied with England? In such sentences. How did one travel in colonial America? Was there dissension among settlers in Massa- chusetts? How many of the leaders of the Revolution can you identify?
The Understood Subject In a request or a command. Were there many great American writers during the colonial period? In the. Did all of the colonists fight against England?
You are — that is. In the first sentence. In what area did most of the early Dutch colonists settle? Were there any sports? How much do you know about the Lost Colony? For what inventions is Benjamin Franklin re- membered? Neither Phyllis nor students is the subject of its sentence. Antony is the simple subject. They identify the person spoken to. Antony baked it. In each sentence. Mae baked it.
Compound Subjects 2f. Antony and Mae. Sometimes a request or command will include a name. Study these sentences: These words are called nouns of direct address. A compound subject consists of two or more sub- jects joined by a conjunction and having the same verb.
The conjunctions most commonly used to connect the words of a compound subject are and and or. Frankenstein and Dracula were both written during the nineteenth century. Either a parrot or a crow may outlive its owner. Find and list the compound subjects as well as the verbs in the following sentences.
Both poets and royalty are buried in Westminster Abbey.
A compound verb consists of two or more verbs joined by a conjunction and having the same subject. Into the room swept Queen Bess and her com- panion.
Pamela] Correlative conjunctions may be used with com- pound subjects. Broken mirrors and black cats are often associated with bad luck. Do you or he know the origin of the word bedlam? There have always been optimists and pessimists. Where are the dictionaries and other reference books located? Compound Verbs 2g. The hero of the novel and a student in my class have similar personalities.
Hurricanes and earthquakes are two kinds of na- tural disasters. My hound can bark. At the rodeo Vaughan leaped upon the wild steer and stayed on it for four full minutes. Jeff rewound the cassette and then pressed the playback button. The children skated. Be sure to include verb helpers. In compound verbs consisting of verb phrases.
Mother will rent or sell the house. Can you type a letter or take shorthand? Notice in the last sentence that the helping verb will is not repeated before sell. We searched the attic but found noth- ing. During the class Walter stretched. The ball lingered for a few seconds on the edge. Pauline can neither sing nor dance. Must you always worry or complain? Often the helper is not repeated when there is a correlative conjunction: Between two and three o'clock I will either be studying in Room 17 or be reading in the library.
Mother will rent or will sell the house. Underscore all subjects once. Cross out all prepositional phrases so that you can isolate the verb and the subject. There are individual singers and group singers ort-t-hr-music--program tonight. After you have copied the sentences below. Underscore all verbs twice. There are ballads for different tastes and for dif- ferent occasions. The words of ballads were written by the common. Both the subject and the verb may be compound.
In ballads people live. Try to make a perfect score on this exercise. Either Karen or Fran I will rent the tape recorder and reserve the audi- torium. Cross out a here or there at the beginning of a sentence. Ballads tell simple stories and create strong moods. On the horizontal line the simple subject is placed to the left of the vertical line. Diagraming the Subject and the Verb A diagram begins with a straight horizontal line. Crossing it approximately in the center is a short vertical line.
Many students find that they can understand a sentence better when they use a diagram. This line is for the main parts of the sentence. This vertical line divides the complete subject from the complete predicate. A diagram is a quick picture of how the parts of a sentence fit together and how the words in a sentence are related.
Everyone at some time or other has felt the emo- tions of the characters in ballads. How can anyone resist the appeal of such simple tales? In one ballad can be heard a jilted lover's com- plaints. The death of a dog and the heroism of a coal miner are related in still other ballads.
In another is found the lament of a mother for her dead son. Modifiers have been omitted from the following diagram. Rover you Jump The expletive there is also placed on a separate horizontal line.
Notice the posi- tion of the coordinating conjunction on the broken line. There birds are When the sentence has a compound subject. Students voted If the sentence has an understood subject.
Arthur are studying Lewis If the verb is compound. James and he are sleeping. Vesuvius erupted. Diagraming Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.
Correlatives are diagramed like this: Soldiers fought and died. Both Ellen and Camille have finished and gone. Both ad- jectives and adverbs are written on slanted lines con- nected to the words they modify. Diagram the following sentences. Miriam sing. Tomorrow modifies both parts of the com- pound verb: Charlotte will write I9.
Diagrams for the following sentences have been provided for you. Copy them on your paper. Each boy listened attentively. Do not leave now. The scouts arose very early. When a conjunction joins two modifiers. Father and Uncle Edmund are hammering and sawing enthusiastically. Menacingly the white and red horse snorted and stamped. Leon and Tom win occasionally.
The fire flickered weakly and then died. There were many unpopular and seemingly sense- less regulations. An extremely interesting book nearly always sells.
The big airliner landed safely and quite smoothly. Diagram each of the following sentences. Rosalie graciously smiled and bowed. There was much hubbub. Frequently the sentence base will have not only a subject and a verb but also a completer. It is possible for a group of words to have a subject. It is that part of the sen- tence on which are suspended all other parts. This base may be com- pared to the backbone of an animal or to the main framework of a building.
A sen- tence base may consist of only the subject and the verb. Bradford and her intelligent assistant. We ate at the drugstore.
Write five separate sentences. Sit quietly and concentrate hard. A complement completes the meaning begun by the subject and the verb.
One girl from Oklahoma was yodeling. Here come Dr. Both Elise and her brother can read and write rather well. She may become an engineer. Look at these sentences: A recording provided background music. S v At that time labor was very cheap. The man in the moon looks friendly.
Notice how the following word groups need other words to complete their meaning. The base of each sentence — subject. Roberta will be a lawyer.
I said that. Later she consulted with the other stu- dents. Study the structure of these sentences. The complement is never in a prepositional phrase. The com- plement may be a noun. The words clean. That broiled fish looks 5. Jim usually seems 3. The history of the English stage is very inter- esting. The student in front of me raised 6. Add a complement to each of the fol- lowing items.
Do you have 8. Tomorrow the class will hear 4. Make three columns on your paper. In the second sentence. Make interesting sentences. Carol brought 2. Subject Verb Complement 1. Write five sentences using the follow- ing sentence bases. Find the base of each sentence and enter the parts in the appropriate column. Label the first subject. Last week our class visited 7. A noun is At the end of the meal.
Do not be satisfied with adding only one or two words. It was especially useful for eavesdroppers and critics. In Shakespeare's time. Underscore the subject once. The stories of early English drama were usually biblical ones.
The plays. Clergymen then recommended the abolition of acting within the churches. In the beginning churches gave plays for in- struction. The actors presented their plays on wagons in the open air.
Using each word in the list below as a complement. At the same time. Thomas then noticed the glint in Susan's eye. The top of the wagon soon became a convenient place for "heaven. There the "angels" in the play could address the "sinners" on earth below. Shakespeare used the upper stage for the famous balcony scene in Romeo and Juliet. In the sentences of Exercise 16 page 64 there are six subject complements.
A whale is a mammal. List them on your paper. It is an adjective that modifies the sub- ject of the sentence. The mayor is she. In the second.
After each noun or pronoun. The sea grew calm. It is a noun or pronoun that explains or identifies the subject of the sentence. A subject complement is a noun. The direct object of the verb is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb or shows the re- sult of the action.
Tell whether each complement is a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective. White seemed 8. There are two kinds of objects: The berries taste Nate receives the action ex- pressed by the verb defeated and tells whom Ruth defeated. The shark appears 3. It answers the question "What? Use five com- pound complements.
Manny had been 5. Does she sound Objects Objects are complements that do not refer to the subject. Were they 2. In this sentence. Neither is ever in a preposi- tional phrase. Detours are often 6. The river looks 4. This is 7. They may be 9. Nate is the direct object. Read the following groups of words aloud. Her essay won a prize. The monastery library of the Middle Ages first introduced the idea of a circulating library.
We were singing songs. Number your paper and write after the appropriate number the direct object for each sentence. Readers could not take books from either the Roman libraries or the library in AlexavIria. Readers borrow millions of books from them every year. Sarcasm annoys me. Vivian moved furniture. This library contained a large collection of ancient plays and works of philosophy. Fire later destroyed these buildings. The Roman emperor Augustuefounded two pub- lic libraries.
In the sixth century. The police were expecting trouble. This article gives many interesting facts about libraries. If you once forfeit the confidence of your fellow citizens. A generous heart repairs a slanderous tongue.
Don will sing a ballad. Some sentences contain two or more direct objects. We may give advice. The indirect object of the verb is a noun or pronoun that precedes the direct object and usually tells "to whom" or "for whom" or "to what" or "for wtiPt" the action of the verb is done.
One half of the world cannot understand the pleasures of the other. There are twenty direct objects in the following quotations.
It discovers the secret rays of the universe and restores to us for- gotten paradises. But through all my changes I still see myself. The clearsighted do not rule the world. Wit has truth in it. Poetry ennobles the heart and the eyes and un- veils the meaning of all things. Vanity plays lurid tricks with our memory. Number your paper and write the direct objects after the appropriate numbers.
One must never. The wise make proverbs. The indirect objects in the sentences below are boldfaced. If the word to or for is used. Kathy saved me some cake. Each tells to whom or for whom some- thing is done. Lisa sent a telegram to whom?
I bought her a new baseball bat. In the sentences above. My cousin left Denise a message. Both direct and indirect objects may be com- pound. Don will sing us a ballad. The doctor gave Mother good advice. Don will sing a ballad for whom? Us is the indirect object. Kathy saved some cake for me. Daedalus made Icarus and himself wings out of feathers and beeswax. He gave Icarus careful instructions not to fly too near the sun.
According toGreek-mythology. Daedalus used his wings wisely and reached Sicily in safety. Mythology tells us many other stories of Daedalus' fabulous inventions. After the c. But Icarus soon forgot his father's advice.
The complicated passageways of this building give us our word for "a confusing maze of possi- bilities. A line slanting toward the subject. He flew too high. Diagraming Complements As a part of the sentence base. You will not find an indirect object in every sentence. Even today. It comes after the verb. In order--to escape.
Superstitions are illogical beliefs.. The direct object is diagramed in much the same manner as the predicate nominative. A broken mirror remains an unlucky omen. Everyone played I games. Superstitious beliefs are still common. The only differ- ence is that the line separating the direct object from the verb is vertical. Such notions seem both childish and foolish. A black cat is a bad sign. Ray gave I hamburger o dogs 10 0. Randy tossed I apple Elmer Note that the slanting line from the verb extends slightly below the horizontal line for the indirect object.
The compound indirect object is diagramed in this way: Smith who 29 had the last laugh.
Bullethead 10 had moved to a small town in the West. The italicized letters X and 0 are not words. The traitor sold the enemy important secrets. Bullethead 22 became so 23 incensed over the sarcasm that 24 he foolishly 25 prepared to print a paragraph filled with O's.
Who will lend us a tent and a canoe? Not 2 all of his main charac- ters are ghosts or 3 devils. Much to his surprise. When the paragraph 26 appeared. Smith soon 21 replied with his own biting sarcasm. Tseng gave the team and the fans a memo- rable lesson. Karen gave us a confident wave. Poe has written many comic 4 tales.