VaikhAnasa gruha archa mUrthys at SrI Ramakrishna Deekshitulu's gruham with VedAs. The VaikhAnasa Agama was meant exclusively for temple-worship. Vaikhanasa Agama - Ebook download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf) , Text File .txt) or read book online. hiiiii. Vaikhanasa Agama. SWAMI HARSHANANDA. Introduction. Agamas are secondary scriptures of. Hinduism, more closely connected with rituals and temple.
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Indological Books, 'A Study Of Vaikhanasa Agama - Sitala Prasad billpercompzulbe.cf'. Vaikhānasa is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism and primarily worships Vishnu (and his associated Avatars) as the Supreme God. The followers are. Sankalpasraddha of Vaikhanasa Edited by Muthu Batter Dr. S. Sangendhi, Pub By Vaikhanasa Vijayam-March - - Click to view or.
Max Muller in his commentary on the Laws of Manu mentions that Manu 4. He also mentions of Kullaka Bhatta 6. Max Muller states that Bahudayana does refer to a Vaikhanasa sutra and gives a short summary of its content in the third chapter of the third prashna of his Dharmashastra.
Bahudayana also describes the forest dwelling hermits as those who devotedly tend sramanakagni. Sramana It appears, sramanaka-agni was no ordinary fire.
But, it was the fire born out of Vedic rituals; and was one with the worshipper Agnim apy atma-sat krtva. The term Sramana, in the ancient context, referred to a mendicant who leads a life of restraint and discipline tapo-yoga ; but continues to be in Vedic fold tending sacrificial fires with a sense of duty and not by desire to gain material rewards. And, the terms Sramana and Sramanaka came to be equated with Vaikhanasa and their scriptures.
The Sramanaka method of invoking sramanaka-agni perhaps involved icon - worship along with the usual fire rituals. That perhaps distinguished the Vaikhanasas from the other hermit Vanaprastha groups.
It is said; Vaikhanasa is the name of a community as also the name of the philosophy they follow. It is also said; Vaikhanasa community derived its name from its founder a manifestation of Brahma or Vishnu : sage Vaikhanasa of Angirasa gotra, affiliated to Krishna-Yajurveda -shakha.
The feature of his teaching, while it is rooted in the pristine Vedic tradition, is that it extolled a strong devotion towards Vishnu and worship of Vishnu icon. Vaikhanasa, perhaps, was amongst the earliest Vaishnavas mentioned in the Narayaniya section of Mahabharata.
They are described as peaceful, benign soumya , self possessed, bhavitathmanam , highly evolved utcchyante and satttvic in their food- habits Mbh.
Shanthi parva. Thus, the term Vaikhanasa includes in itself several shades of meaning: the forest-dwelling hermit in the third stage of his life; a great sage who was the founder of Vaikhanasa tradition, an incarnate Brahma or Vishnu; and, the set of the sutras named after him.
Perhaps the earliest hermits following this tradition were all of these. But, in the later stages, the followers of the tradition identified and distinguished themselves as disciples of Vaikhana the adept in Vishnu-worship Vishnu —puja- visharada and those guided by the instructions of Vaikhanasa-kalpa — sutra, which in all its aspects is devoted to Vishnu.
Principles of Vaikhanasa tradition The Vaikhanasas are distinguished by their uncompromising devotion to Vishnu as the Vedic God par excellence. Yaskacharya, in his Nirukta, defines Vishnu as 'Vishnu vishateh; one who enters everywhere', and 'yad vishito bhavati tad vishnurbhavati; that which is free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu. In other words, Vishnu became the omnipresent dimension of the supreme Lord. They steadfastly held on to the Vedic image of Vishnu; and, also clung to the Vedic orthodoxy.
They remained faithful to Vedic principles and traditions. And, proudly asserted that they are the surviving school of Vedic ritual propagated by the sage Vaikhana; and above all, they are the children of Vishnu. The Vaikhanasa tradition asserts that it is the most ancient; and traces its origin to Vedas. Vishnu, they declare, who is the Supreme god adored by the Vaikhanasas is not only a Vedic god, but is also the very personification of Yajna Yajna-purusha.
That is because; all gods reside in Vishnu. The Yajna, the worship of the divine through fire, is a-murta; while the worship offered to an icon is sa-murta.
According to Vaikhanasas, though yajna might be more awe-inspiring, archa worship or puja the direct communion with your chosen deity is more appealing to ones heart, is more colourful and is aesthetically more satisfying. Sakala, on the other hand, is when the Godhead is visualized as an icon, a human form with distinct features, seated in a solar orb arka-mandala or in sacred- water pot jala-kumbha or as worship worthy icon archa-bera.
Along with icon form of Vishnu, the text suggests techniques for visualising contemplating and worshipping the most adorable form of Vishnu. Vaikhanasa view point is that icon-worship was an integral part of Vedic culture; and it was not a later innovation.
It says; Godhead is described by the performers of Vedic Yajnas as Yajna-Purusha; and as Vishnu by those who know the final import of the Vedas Vedantins. Vaikhanasa regard themselves as those who moved from the first stage of Vedas to its final import Vedanta ; and therefore are the Vedantins. The ancient smriti-kara Bahudayana Dharma —sutra: 3.
Vaikhanasas assert, their method of worship is indeed truly Vedic.
It was explained; when Bhagavata-purana Further, the Agamas are regarded as Vaidika, because they accept the ultimate authority of the Vedas and employ Vedic mantras in all types of rituals. The worship practices at home as described by the Vaikhanasa —Grihya-sutra closely follow the vidhi-s prescribed in Bodhayana—Grihya—sutra, Apastamba sutra, and Atharvaveda- parishistha.
They are also said to resemble mantra prashnas of Taittariyakas and Brahmana of Sama-vedins. And, these perhaps represented the earliest surviving textual references on icon-worship. The householder was required to perform regularly a group of five sacrifices pancha-maha-yajna. These were the sacrifices rendered to gods deva ; the ancestors pitr ; animals, birds and elements bhuta ; fellow beings manushya ; and, Veda- study Brahma.
These were, however, not Yajnas proper, But, were meant as means for developing the sense of detachment and compassion towards all.
If one does not perform Yajnas then one must contemplate on Vishnu who is the very personification of Yajna. And, one must worship Vishnu, the Supreme god, constantly with devotion, in his home or in a temple. Following that, the concept of Yajna was re-defined. The Yajnas and icon worship were regarded as complimentary; and the icon worship was not viewed as distinct from or contrary to Vedic rituals.
It was explained that Yajna which involves offering through Agni is, in fact, the worship of formless God amurtha-archana. But, Yajna is by itself Vishnu yajno vai Visnhuh. In converse, it meant that worship of Vishnu icon was also a Yajna samurtha-bhagavad-yajna , which in turn was the worship of all gods sangathi deva- pujanam yajnah.
The two forms of worship are not essentially different. Therefore, the rewards of the Yajna are also obtained by worshipping and meditating upon the icon of Vishnu murtha-archana.
Thus, the Vaikhanasa teachings provide both for worship the form-less amurtha-archana through performance of yajnas and for worship of Vishnu through his image, with equal dedication and devotion.
This dual spiritual heritage, blended harmoniously, underline the twofold character of Vaikhanasa worship -tradition archana- sampradaya. The characteristic of Vaikhanasa view point is that the path way to final emancipation is not devotion alone, but worship of icon samurtha-archana performed with devotion bhakthi and sense of absolute surrender prapatthi.
It says, devotion may at times be a passing mood, but worship-sequences kriya-yoga, upasana rendered with utmost diligence when combined with devotion leads to fulfilment of human aspirations. A sense of devotion envelops the mind and heart when the icon that is properly installed and consecrated is worshipped with love and reverence.
By constant attention to the icon, by seeing it again and again and by offering it various services of devotional worship, the icon is invested with divine presence and its worship ensures our good here aihika and also our ultimate good or emancipation amusmika. That would easily evoke feeling of loving devotion bhakthi in the heart of the worshipper. The icon is no longer just a symbol; the icon is a true divine manifestation enliven by loving worship, devotion, and absolute surrender parathion.
And, Vishnu is best approached by this means. The very act of worship archa is deemed dear to Vishnu. It points out that such upanasa is the same as Vedic Yajna; nay but is superior to Yajna Worship bhavad-samutha-archana is indeed more effective and purposeful than mere knowing scriptures. The major thrust of Vaikhanasa texts is therefore to provide clear, comprehensive and detailed guidelines for Vishnu worship.
The Vaikhanasa texts are characterized by their attention to details of worship-sequences. The icon worship archana is held by Vaikhanasas as being superior to all other modes of worship because it includes in itself the special attitude of devotion bhakthi , the offerings huta to god, recitation of mantras, repetitions of the sacred mantra japa and meditation upon the glory of god dhyana.
The Vaikhanasa texts hold the view that icon-worship is best suited for the present age of Kali. The well made icon of Vishnu pleases the eyes; delights the heart; engages the mind; fills the worshipper with loving devotion; and, blesses with a great sense of joy and fulfillment. That is the reason the texts advise that icon worship must be resorted to by all, especially by those involved in the transactional world.
The devotee must progressively move from gross sthula to the subtle sukshma.
The Vaikhanasas evolved the theory of the five aspects of Vishnu: Vishnu , the all-pervading supreme deity; Purusha, the principle of life; Satya, the static aspect of deity; Achyuta, the immutable aspect; and Aniruddha, the irreducible aspect. The distinction is emphasised between Vishnu in his Niskala presence, the unfigured primeval and indivisible form unperceived even by Brahma, and his Sakala presence, the figured, divisible, emanated, and movable form.
In his sakala presence he responds gracefully to devotional meditation. Shri is important as nature, Prakriti, and as the power, Shakti, of Vishnu. The Vaikhanasa doctrine states that Moksha is release into Vishnu's heaven. The nature of a man's Moksha is dependent on a devotee's service of Japa, attentive repetition of prayer, Huta, Yaaga, sacrifice, archana, service to images, or Dhyana, Yogic meditation. Of the four the Marichi Samhita says Archana is the realisation of all aims.
Symbols[ edit ] Temples and images with the Vaikhanasas are of more importance than perhaps any other sect of Hinduism. In accordance with Vaikhanasa doctrine of the two forms of Vishnu, the Nishkala, the unfigured, and the Sakala, the figured, two cult images are distinguished.
There is the large immovable image representing Vishnu's Niskala form, which is ritually placed in a sanctuary and elaborately consecrated, and a smaller movable image representing Vishnu's Sakala form.
If the devotee wishes for temporal and eternal results he should worship both forms. But if he is after only eternal results he should worship the immovable image.
After purification and meditation to identify with Vishnu, the devotee surrenders to Vishnu and places the movable image on a bathing pedestal and elaborately bathes it.
This is preparation for receiving the presence of God by immediate contact via a connecting string. They were not merely ritual priests, but were trusted with administering the temples and their lands. With the rise of the Shri Vaishnavas the Vaikhanasas declined in their temple role.
Ramanuja, leader of the Shri Vaishnavas and the first organiser of temple administration at Srirangam Temple, replaced the Vaikhanasa system of worship with the more liberal Pancaratra system, expanded the fivefold division of temple servants into tenfold, and gave an important part in ritual to sudra, lowest caste, ascetics.
This change spread to other Vaishnava temples. However, the Vaikhanasas continued to be important. Their present day temple activities are worthy of attention, as are their efforts to work for community integrity which is threatened by increasing social and technological changes. Symbols Temples and images with the Vaikhanasas are of more importance than perhaps any other sect of Hinduism. In accordance with Vaikhanasa doctrine of the two forms of Vishnu, the niskala, the unfigured, and the sakala, the figured, two cult images are distinguished.
There is the large immovable image representing Vishnu's niskala form, which is ritually placed in a sanctuary and elaborately consecrated, and a smaller movable image representing Vishnu's sakala form. If the devotee wishes for temporal and eternal results he should worship both forms. But if he is after only eternal results he should worship the immovable image.
After purification and meditation to identify with Vishnu, the devotee surrenders to Vishnu and places the movable image on a bathing pedestal and elaborately bathes it. This is preparation for receiving the presence of God by immediate contact via a connecting string.
The invocation starts with a mantra, sacred utterance, saying that the Imperishable is linked to the Perishable and that the Self is released from all evil as it knows God. Flowers are presented to all the deities present.